Monday, February 29, 2016

Bhagavadgita 2-13, श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता २-१3

श्लोकः
देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्घीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति।।२-१३।।

सन्धि विग्रहः
देहिनः अस्मिन् यथा देहे कौमारम् यौवनम् जरा।
तथा देहान्तर-प्राप्तिः घीरः तत्र न मुह्यति।।२-१३।।

श्लोकार्थः
देहिनः अस्मिन् देहे यथा कौमारम् यौवनम् जरा, तथा
देहान्तर-प्राप्तिः। तत्र घीरः न मुह्यति।

शब्दार्थः
2.13 देहिनः=of the embodied अस्मिन्=in this यथा=as देहे=in the body कौमारम्=boyhood यौवनम्=youth जरा=youth तथा=similarly देहान्तर=of transference of the body प्राप्तिः=achievement घीरः=the sober तत्र=thereupon=never मुह्यति=is deluded

Meaning
2.13: As the soul passes from childhood to youth to old age in a body, so also the soul takes another body. This does not confuse a sage (brave, composed and intelligent person).

SARARTHA-VARSINI

The following point may be raised: Since the aatmaa is associated with the body, the body will also be an object of our love. Furthermore, those who are related to the body, such as sons, brothers, relatives, grandsons and so on, will also be the objects of our love, so when they die, we will certainly feel grief. shree Bhagavaan speaks this sloka beginning with dehinah, in answer to this. "The jeeva in the body attains boyhood; at the end of boyhood he attains youth, and at the end of youth he attains old age. Similarly, at the loss of the body he attains another body. Just as one does not grieve at the end of boyhood and youth, which are objects of love due to their relationship with the aatmaa, similarly, one should not grieve for the loss of the body itself, which is also an object of love due to its relationship with the aatmaa, when it is lost. If a person grieves when he attains old age at the loss of youth, then he also feels happy when he attains youth at the loss of boyhood. Therefore, you should feel happy because when Bheeshma and Drona lose their old bodies they will attain new ones. Or you should consider that, just as in one body various stages of growth are reached, the same jeeva attains various types of bodies."

SARARTHA-VARSINI PRAKASIKA VRITTI

The word dehee means the aatmaa or jeeva, which is unchangeable, whereas the body is subject to transformation. Even when the body undergoes changes from boyhood to youth to old age and to death, the embodied aatmaa does not undergo any change. It always remains the same. Therefore, it is not proper to lament for the loss of the body. Just as when one leaves boyhood and attains youth, one feels happiness instead of grief, similarly, after death one attains a new, able and beautiful body. Therefore, why should one feel distress? Rather, one should only feel happiness.

King Yayaati became old in his youth because he was cursed by his father-in-law, shukraacaarya. In great distress, he humbly begged forgiveness at the feet of shukraacaarya. To please his daughter who was married to the king, shukraacaarya gave him the boon that he could exchange his old age for the youth of any of his young sons. His eldest son, Yadu, refused because he wanted to perform bhagavad-bhajana, but his youngest son, Puru, gave his youth and accepted the old age of his father. In this way, Yayaati again became young and enjoyed with his queens (Devayaanee and others). In the company of his sons and grandsons, he considered himself very happy. Finally, however, he understood that all these pleasures were temporary and the cause of unlimited misery. Thus, he returned his son's youth to him and went to the forest to perform bhajana of Bhagavaan (shreemadBhaagavatam 9.18.1-51). Therefore, it is appropriate to feel happy, knowing that, at the loss of an old, weak and withered body, one will achieve a healthy, strong and beautiful new body.


Sunday, February 28, 2016

Bhagavadgita 2-12, श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता २-१२

श्लोकः
न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम्।।२-१२।।

सन्धि विग्रहः
न तु एव अहम् जातु न आसम् न त्वम् न इमे जनाधिपाः।
न च एव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयम् अतः परम।।२-१२।।

श्लोकार्थः
अहम् जातु न आसम् (इति) न तु एव, त्वम् (जातु न आसीः इति) न,
इमे जनाधिपाः (जातु न आसन् इति) न, ।
अतः परम् च वयम् सर्वे न भविष्यामः (इति) न एव।

शब्दार्थः
2.12 =never तु=but एव=certainly अहम्=I जातु=at any time=did not आसम्=exist=not त्वम्=you=not इमे=all these जनाधिपाः=kings =never=also एव=certainly=not भविष्या=shall existमः सर्वे वयम्=all of us अतः परम=here after

Meaning
2.12: Never was there a time that neither I, nor you, nor those kings did not exist and nor will all of us stop to exist from now on. 

SARARTHA-VARSINI

Krishna asks the question, "O My friend, Arjuna, when one grieves over the death of a dear person, what is the object of his love, the body or the aatmaa?" In shreemad-Bhaagavatam (10.14.50) it is said:

sarveshaam api bhutaanaam / nripa svaatmaiva vallabhah

"O king, for all jeevas, the aatmaa is certainly dearmost." According to this statement of shree shukaadeva Gosvaamee, it is the aatmaa that is the only object of love. Although there is a difference between ...svara and the jeeva, both types of aatmaa are eternal and free from death. Thus, it is not the aatmaa that is the object of grief. For this reason only, shree Krishna is speaking this sloka beginning with na tv evaaham. "It is not true that I, Paramaatmaa, did not exist in the past. Certainly I was existing. In the same way, you, the jeeva, also existed in the past, as did the jeevas who are all these kings. The possibility of the soul not existing prior to his existence in his present body is refuted by this statement. Similarly, it is also not true that you, these kings and I, will not continue to exist in the future. We will all continue to exist." Thus, it has been proven that the soul is indestructible. In this regard, the Katha Upanishad (2.2.13) states: nityo nityaanaam cetanas cetanaanaam / eko bahunaam yo vidadhaati kaamaan. "He who is the supreme eternal amongst all eternal entities, the supreme conscious being among all conscious beings, is fulfilling the desires of all living beings."

SARARTHA-VARSINI PRAKASIKA VRITTI

The jeeva's contact with the gross body is called birth, and separation from it is called death. When the jeevaatmaa is situated in the gross body, people have loving dealings with each other. But, such ignorant persons, who consider the gross body to be the aatmaa, do not realise that the real self is not material, and thus, when a jeeva disappears from a body, they become absorbed in grief.

In shreemad-Bhaagavatam Pareekshit Mahaaraaja asked shreela shukadeva Gosvaamee, "O braahmana, shree Krishna was not born to the same parents as the other cowherd boys. How was it possible for those parents to have such unparalleled prema for Him, that they did not even have for their own children?" In response to this shreela Sukadeva Gosvaamee says, "O King, for all living entities, one's own self (aatmaa) is the most dear. Although entities who are separate from one's self, such as a son, wealth, house and other objects, are dear to the self, they are not as dear as the self itself. It is secondary to the affection one has towards one's own self. O King, the affection an embodied soul has for that for which he feels possessiveness, such as a son, wealth and house, is not the same as the affection he feels for his own self." In other words, there is a difference between 'I' and 'mine'. The amount of preeti (affection) one has for objects which are possessed by him is not the same as the preeti that one has for one's own self. Those who consider the body to be the self do not feel that which is related to the body, such as a house, a wife, or a son, is as dear to them as their own body. And even though a person's body is the object of his affection, it is not as dear to him as the self, because when the body becomes old, the desire for survival still remains strong. This is due to the excessive attachment one has for the self. Because shree Krishna is the very Self of the self, He is the most dear object (priyatama) for every aatmaa. The world, which is related to Krishna, is also dear but not dearmost. Krishna is the object of the word 'I', because He is the aatmaa of all aatmaas. And that which is related to Krishna, such as the universe, is the object of the word 'mine'. That is why Krishna is so dear to the cowherd boys.

The above statements are also verified by the dialogue between Yaajnaavalkya and Maitreyee in Brihad-aaranyaka Upanishad (2.4.5) where it is said:

sa hovaaca na vaa are patyuh kaamaaya priyo bhavaty aatmans tu kaamaaya paatih priyo bhavati na vaa are sarvasya kaamaaya sarvam priyam bhavaty aatmanas tu kaamaaya sarvam priyam bhavati

The great sage Yajnaavalkya said to Maitreyee, 'No living entity loves another for the other's satisfaction. Only for one's own satisfaction does the husband love his wife, the wife love her husband, the father love his son and the son love his father. A person is dear, not for someone else's satisfaction, but for the happiness and satisfaction of one's own self (aatmaa)'.