Saturday, June 18, 2016

Bhagavadgita 4-9, श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता ४-९

श्लोकः
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति मामेति सोऽर्जुन।।४-९।।

सन्धि विग्रहः
जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यम् एवम् यः वेत्ति तत्त्वतः।
त्यक्त्वा देहम् पुनः जन्म न एति माम् एति सः अर्जुन।।४-९।।

श्लोकार्थः
हे अर्जुन! यः मे दिव्यम् जन्म कर्म च एवम् तत्त्वतः वेत्ति,
सः देहम् त्यक्त्वा, पुनः जन्म न एति, (किन्तु सः) माम् एति।

शब्दार्थः
4.9 जन्म=birth कर्म=work च=also मे=of mine दिव्यम्=transcendental एवम्=like this यः=anyone who वेत्ति=knows तत्त्वतः=in reality त्यक्त्वा=leaving aside देहम्=this body पुनः=again जन्म=birth न=never एति=does attain माम्=unto me एति=does attain सः=he अर्जुन=O Arjuna

Meaning
4.9: He, who knows my birth and work as divine in their true nature and accepts them as the Truth, will not be born again upon leaving his body and comes to me O Arjuna. 

SARARTHA-VARSINI

"One will only become perfect when he has understood the essence of the transcendental nature of My birth (janma) and activities (karma), which are endowed with the characteristics described in the previous slokas." This sloka, beginning with the word janma, is spoken to explain this. shreepaada Raamaanujaacaarya and shreepaada Madhusudana Sarasvatee explain that the word divya means apraakrita, transcendental, and shreela shreedhara Svaamee has translated it as alaukika, not of this material world. The material world is created by prakriti (material nature), thus by the word alaukika shreela shreedhara Svaameepaada also implies apraakrita. Consequently, because the birth and activities of shree Bhagavaan are apraakrita and beyond the modes, they are nitya (eternal).

In the Bhagavat-sandarbha, shreela Jeeva Gosvaamee refers to this present subject in his explanation of the sloka: na vidyate yasya ca janma karma vaa (shreemad-Bhaagavatam (8.3.8)). He explains that, although this matter cannot be comprehended by logic, on the strength of statements from the Vedas and Smriti it must be accepted as being beyond reason.

In this regard, it is also said in the Purusha-bodhinee sruti of Piplaada-saakhaa:

eko deva nitya-leelaanurakto / bhakta-hridy antar-aatmaa

Eternally engaged in His pastimes, the one Lord in His form of Antaryaamee enters within the hearts of His bhaktas.

Regarding the eternality of shree Bhagavaan's birth and activities (janma and karma), detailed descriptions have been given in shreemad-Bhaagavatam.

"After hearing My statements such as: yo vetti tattvatah (Geetaa 4.9), ajo 'pi sann avyayaatmaa (Geetaa 4.6) and janma karma ca me divyam (Geetaa 4.9), one who understands the eternal nature of My birth and activities with theistic intelligence-that is, who is not dependent on empiricism to accept it-does not have to take birth again in this material world."

"Those who in truth understand the word tat in the statement of Geetaa (17.23)-om tat sad iti nirdeso brahmanas trividhah smritah to mean brahma do not have to take birth again after giving up their present body. Rather, it is assured that they attain Me." Here Bhagavaan gives a superior meaning to the phrase "giving up the body". "Such a person does not take another birth after giving up the body. Rather, he attains Me even without giving it up."

Shreepaada Raamaanujaacaarya writes paraphrasing Krishna, "All sins that impede one on the path to attain My full shelter are completely destroyed by true knowledge of My transcendental birth and activities. Only those dear devotees who have taken shelter of Me, attain Me even in this very life." 

SARARTHA-VARSINI PRAKASIKA VRITTI

Those who, by the grace of guru and the Vaishnavas, realise that shree Bhagavaan accepts a transcendental birth and performs transcendental activities through the medium of His acintya-sakti attain eternal service to Him in this very life by the mercy of His hlaadhinee-sakti. On the contrary, those who consider the birth and activities of shree Krishna to be mundane are overpowered by ignorance and wander in the cycle of birth and death, afflicted by the three-fold miseries.

Lord Brahmaa has also said in shreemad-Bhaagavatam (2.7.29): tat karma divyam iva, "The activities of shree Bhagavaan are indeed suprahuman." shreela Visvanaatha Cakravartee Thaakura has clarified this point in his Bhaagavatam commentary on this sloka. "In reality, all of shree Krishna's activities are transcendental." Furthermore, it is stated:

na vidyate yasya ca janma karma vaa na naama-rupe guna-dosha eva vaa tathaapi lokaapyaya-sambhavaaya yah sva-maayayaa taany anukaalam ricchati
Shreemad-Bhaagavatam (8.3.8)

For the Lord there is no janma, karma, naama, rupa, guna, dosha (fault), etc., yet He always accepts these attributes by His potency for the creation and destruction of the material world.

The explanation of the above sloka by shreela Jeeva Gosvaamee is significant and can be referred to in his Bhaagavatsandarbha and Krama-sandarbha.

The shrutis have described Bhagavaan as nishphala (ineffective), nishkriya (inactive), niranjana (faultless), niraakaara (formless), asabdam (indescribable), avyaya (imperishable), and so forth. This is only because He is beyond material qualities. Thus, in specific shrutis such as Chaandogya Upanishad (3.14.4), He is called sarva-karmaah, the performer of all activities, sarva-kaamah, the possessor of all types of desires, sarvagandhah, the possessor of all fragrances, sarva-rasah, the possessor of all mellows, and so on. This is corroborated in shreemad-Bhaagavatam 6.4.33:

yo 'nugrahaartham bhajataam paada-mulam anaama-rupo bhagavaan anantah naamaani rupaani ca janma-karmabhir bheje sa mahyam paramah praseedatu

To bestow mercy upon those who worship His lotus feet, Bhagavaan-although free from material names, forms and other attributes-accepts various transcendental forms and names through His different avataaras and activities. May that unlimited Bhagavaan, whose opulence is inconceivable, be pleased with me.

Those who are bhaktas achieve Bhagavaan even while living within this body. Krishna says: yaanti maam eva nirgunaah. "Those who are free from the modes attain Me" (shreemadBhaagavatam 11.25.22). While commenting on this sloka, shreela Visvanaatha Cakravartee Thaakura writes that the word laya (dissolution) is not mentioned here. This clarifies Krishna's point: "Upon becoming nirguna, My bhaktas attain Me even in their present body."